GreekKeys Unicode 2008: Troubleshooting and FAQ for Windows users
November 11, 2015: sales of GreekKeys 2008 ceased on October 28. The updated product GreekKeys 2015 is now available at the web site of the Society for Classical Studies (free to SCS members, $20 for non-members, free or discounted for those who purchased GreekKeys 2008 on or after August 1, 2014). Click here for the new sales and support site.
Known problems and workarounds for GreekKeys 2008
CORRECTION: the Keyboard Charts for Windows wrongly say that pressing a number key twice will produce the number instead of the deadkey function. The correct instruction is to press spacebar after the number in order to produce the number by itself (the same applies to the other signs on the top row of keys, such as hyphen, equals, plus).
Typing in Windows with More than One Greek Keyboard
Most users will be typing in two languages and scripts, their native modern language and polytonic Greek. You must change the selected language in the Language Menu every time you switch from one script to the other (you do not always have to change the font, but it is often a good idea to do so). It is far more efficient to use a keyboard shortcut to switch keyboards than to make the change in the Language Menu with the mouse. The standard keyboard command for changing the language of input is left ALT + shift.
If you install one or both of the symbol keyboards in addition to a version of the GreekKeysU2008 keyboard, then when you switch the language from EN (for English input) [or another two-letter code for whichever modern language you use] to EL (for Elliniki), there will be more than one Greek keyboard available. A small keyboard icon will appear to the right of the EL icon. The name of the current Greek keyboard will not be shown in the Language menu, but is visible if you show the Language bar.
If you simply change to EL, then whichever Greek keyboard was last in use will be the selected keyboard. You can use the Language menu or Language bar to select a different Greek keyboard by holding the mouse down on the small keyboard icon. You can also toggle keyboards within the same language by using a keyboard shortcut. Windows allows two possible settings for keyboard shortcuts. If you set left ALT + shift as the shortcut for changing the language (EN to EL or back), then control + shift will cycle in order through the keyboards of the current language. You won’t see the name of the keyboard currently active unless you make the Language Bar appear separately from the taskbar. Alternatively, if you set the language-changing shortcut to control + shift, then the keyboard-changing shortcut will be left ALT + shift. You can choose between these two alternative settings: open Regional and Language Options, pick the Languages tab, click on Details..., and click on the Key Settings... button in the bottom portion of the dialog.
The easiest setup for typing mixed Roman and Greek with distinct fonts is to create keyboard shortcuts in MS Word for your chosen Roman font and for your chosen Unicode Greek font. Use the Customize… command under Tools, and click on the Keyboard… button to set up your own commands. (In Word 2007 you will find Customize… under Word Options, which you can find by clicking the Office icon on the upper left.) Then you will have a two-command sequence to use at each transition from Roman typing to Greek typing: one for changing the input and one for changing the font.
GreekKeys Unicode FAQ for Windows
Converting from traditional GreekKeys fonts to Unicode Greek fonts and back again:
Using GreekKeys Unicode with applications:
GreekKeys Unicode keyboards are designed for Windows XP and Vista. According to brief tests, they also work in Windows 7. They may work in Windows 2000 or other pre-XP versions, but this has not been tested and is not guaranteed.
GreekKeys 2008 installation requires the use of a standard Windows installers, with setup.exe files, and there is no method of manual installation. Instructions for running the installer are in the Quickstart and User's Guide PDFs that come with the package, and are also given on another page of this site.
Instructions for activation are in the Quickstart and User's Guide PDFs that come with the package, and are also given on another page of this site.
It is possible that the web-based version of GreekKeysConverter will be able to accomplish this. For more details, see the conversion page.
This can be done on a Mac, but if you create such a converted file on Windows, it will probably not be useful. For more details, see the conversion page.
See the separate compatibility page.
This is a result of confusions created by the piecemeal treatment of Greek script in the development of the Unicode standard and the mistake of some font designers in taking the sample glyphs in Unicode charts as prescriptive. Since the official release of GreekKeys Unicode inputs 2.0 with GreekKeys 2005, GreekKeys has followed the recommendation of the Unicode Technical Committee that where there are duplicates in Unicode, the code point in the Greek block should be used and the code point in the GreekExtended block should be avoided. GreekKeys fonts have always used identical characters in the duplicate positions, but some fonts make a distinction. As fonts are revised, such distinctions are fortunately disappearing. For more on this problem, see the technical details page.
If you are typing in a font which does not contain the character that you are trying to input, the OS will automatically seek out another font that does contain the needed character. At present, there are only some system fonts that contain Greek Extended characters needed for polytonic Greek (most system fonts contain the characters for monotonic Greek). The newer your system software, the more fonts supplied by the system or by an application (such as MS Office) will have the polytonic Greek characters.
See also the known problem about shifting fonts in Windows discussed above.
Strictly speaking, it is not necessary to change fonts when you transition from Greek to Roman typing or vice versa, if you are using a Unicode font that contains a large range of Roman characters as well as all the Greek characters you need. (And it is likely that as time goes by more and more standard fonts supplied with the operating system will contain the Unicode standard characters of the Greek and Coptic and the Greek Extended blocks.) But if you are preparing a work for publication in a journal or by a press, of if your work contains very frequent alternation of Greek and roman fonts (as in a commentary), it may not be a good idea to use a single font. In the final production, the press may want all the English to be in a particular Roman font and all the Greek to be in a particular Greek font, and global replacement of one or both types of font is very easy in Microsoft Word (and other programs) as long as the Greek and Roman are in distinct fonts. If you use one font, it will require advanced searching with regular expression terms, and this will be more time-consuming and far more complex. And even if you can do that, catching all the punctuation within the Greek to make it consistent with the Greek font adjacent to it will be a major headache in an extensive document.
For small documents for everyday use, however, such as handouts for classes, it may be perfectly fine to use a single font, if you have one you like. Please note that New Athena Unicode contains Roman characters, but it is not a professional font and little attention has been paid to making these characters harmonious with the Greek characters. For a professional appearance, you will probably not want to type your Roman font text in New Athena Unicode.
As of 2008, all current browsers (and for reasons of security one should use only current browsers, not old versions) work with Unicode fonts and Unicode input. If you have GreekKeys Unicode keyboard, you can use the Unicode input option in the TLG's search field instead of beta code, or do the same in Diogenes 3.
Browsers may, on the other hand, present a rather odd mishmash of Greek fonts when Unicode Greek is displayed. Some html pages are generated without designation of a particular font or fonts for the browser to use, and in this case if the default font you have chosen for the browser does not contain all the Greek characters needed, the missing characters will be supplied from another font.
The TrueType font New Athena Unicode is made freely available by the American Philological Association to facilitate Greek on the internet. See the download page.
The overstroke is U+0305 and it can be entered with the GreekKeys Unicode keyboards. It should be entered after the character that you wish to mark with the overstroke. In the latest revisions of New Athena Unicode, KadmosU, AttikaU, and BosporosU fonts, the overstroke has been repositioned and lengthened to prevent intersection with a tall character and to allow strokes on two successive letters to join in most cases. Use the Keyboard Charts included in the GreekKeys 2008 package to determine the position of U+0305 on the various localized keyboards.
If you are using only regular style Greek (not italic or bold), then GreekKeys Unicode fonts (New Athena Unicode, AttikaU, BosporosU, KadmosU) will work fine in InDesign CS. These fonts do not, however, have separate versions for italic and bold and other styles, and InDesign insists on such additional fonts if you want to use those styles. If you import bold or italic styles from Word, InDesign will display the words as regular instead. If you try to apply bold or italic within InDesign, nothing will happen.
Perhaps at some point bold and italic versions of the fonts will be created, but so far there has not been time to do so.
Your fonts are probably actually present in the menu. Some Adobe applications alphabetize New Athena Unicode font under Athena, ignoring the word "New". Occasionally, earlier versions of GreekKeys Unicode fonts were misrecognized as Central European and listed separately in a series at the end of the font list. But this should not be a problem with the current versions.
If a font designer wants the diacritics to be legible, they need to be of a certain size, and this often means that the vertical dimensions of the Greek characters with diacritics approach or exceed the standard height of the characters of the font. As a result, when the font is used with "single spacing," either the top of a diacritic (such as the circumflex above a breathing sign) or the bottom of a descender (or of an iota subscript) may not be displayed in full on the screen.
Unless effort is expended on a major redesign of the font (which is unlikely), this problem will persist. It already existed with some of the traditional GreekKeys-encoded fonts. The first thing to note is that this is a screen-display problem. The characters will in fact print in full (but in some circumstances you may have the top of a character in one line overlapping the bottom of the character in the line above). The best workaround is to increase the height of the line spacing. In general, the line spacing should be at least 2 or 3 points greater than the point size of the font. Thus, with 12-point KadmosU, use the Paragraph… command under the Format menu, and on the Indents and Spacing pane, use the setting under Spacing: to choose "At least" and then change the entry (which may appear by default as "12 pt" if you are using a 12-point font) to "14 pt" or "15 pt" and click OK. In other programs you may have to find the commands or settings to make a similar line-height adjustment. On a web page you can create sufficient line-height using CSS.
The Roman characters with macron or breve are present in many Unicode fonts: in fact most combinations (Ā ā Ă ă Ē ē Ĕ ĕ Ī ī Ĭ ĭ Ō ō Ŏ ŏ Ū ū Ŭ ŭ) are present in a large number of system fonts; only in the case of ȳ and Ȳ is the character found not found in Windows system fonts (at least in XP). All these characters are present in the GreekKeys Unicode fonts. In Windows, you need to enter such characters using an alternative method of input.separate page presenting technical details of GreekKeys Unicode and the APA fonts.
A Polytonic Greek keyboard is available in most installations of Windows XP and later, and it may fulfill basic needs for entering Unicode Greek (it will not help with some specialized needs). An illustration of the layout of the keyboard is accessible at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/goglobal/bb964651.aspx. You also have to follow the steps for activation of the keyboard, which are described on a different help page of this site, where you will need to select Greek Polytonic in Step 8 instead of GreekKeysU 2008.
Modern Windows browsers allow Unicode input within html forms in documents that are encoded as Unicode (utf-8 encoding). This capability is found, for instance, at the TLG web site on their Unicode input search page.
When making an html document containing Unicode Greek, the charset should be set to "utf-8" and the Greek may be entered in a couple of different ways. The least cumbersome is to use an application that allows Unicode input: in this way you can type visible Greek into your file. The more cumbersome way is to use either decimal or hexadecimal code as shown here as an image (so it won't execute):
For problems with GreekKeys Unicode, AFTER you've used the documentation in the package and on this site, send email Donald Mastronarde at djmastronarde dot berkeley dot edu, being sure to use as your subject line "GreekKeys query." Please tell what flavor of Windows OS you are using, what application, which keyboard and which font, , and what the problem is.
The following information is based in part on information provided by Jeffrey Rusten and Juan-José Marcos, developer of the ALPHABETUM Unicode font for ancient scripts, http://guindo.pntic.mec.es/~jmag0042/alphabet.html. Some of these remarks are several years old.
A free utility for inputting Unicode characters was announced in january 2006. This seems to be for sporadic entry of non-standard characters rather than for large-scale typing of a foreign text: http://www.cardbox.com/quick.htm.
As of June 2005, there is a free utility, originally designed for Spanish keyboards, but now also in a version for US English keyboard, that can be used to enter polytonic Unicode Greek in any Windows application. For the download site for Sibyllai (English version), click here (or Spanish version here).
In Word 97 and later, polytonic Greek characters in Unicode can be entered with the Insert Symbol... command. This is, of course, unsatisfactory for any sustained entry of Greek words. For more on this command and the Windows Character Map, see the technical details page. In Windows 2000 and XP, there is usually at least one font in the system that contains the Greek Extended range and well as the Greek range (Arial Unicode, Palatino Linotype). For more on fonts see the fonts page.
Here are some possibilities to consider:
Professor Marcos reports that the main advantage of Keyman is that this application allow users to enter Greek polytonic Unicode text in all Windows applications (PowerPoint, Access and Excel), and not just Word. He has written a manual (in Spanish only) in which he describes how to configure Keyman and how to use the keyboards by Manuel A. López and David J. Perry. The manual includes screenshots. There is also a manual (in Spanish) describing Antioch, including screenshots and guiding users step by step. They can be download from http://guindo.pntic.mec.es/~jmag0042/alphabet.html.